Paternity and Maternity Studies

Results with up to 99.999999% reliability

The generation of genetic profiles from biological samples (cells, saliva, hair samples with follicle, blood, etc.) allows for the extraction, analysis, and comparison of the DNA profiles of the individuals involved in the study, to determine whether there is a paternity and/or maternity relationship between them.

This is possible because we all inherit genetic material from our parents. Half of our DNA comes from our father, and the other half from our mother.

Once the DNA is extracted from the samples received in our laboratory, and the genetic profile is obtained, we conduct a comparative study that allows us to confirm or rule out whether there is a paternal/maternal-filial relationship between these individuals.

Request for Paternity Study

How to Initiate a Paternity or Maternity Study Process?

No formal request from a judge or lawyer is needed to initiate a paternity or maternity study. Any adult – father, mother, or offspring – can start a genetic study process to confirm whether there is a paternal/maternal-filial relationship with another person.

The steps to follow are:


Purchase a Paternity/Maternity Kit

The purchase of the kit can be made directly on our website.

During the purchase process, two options will be offered:

  1. Buy a kit for an informative paternity/maternity study, the results of which allow certifying the paternal/maternal-filial relationship of the individuals from whom the samples are obtained. The result will not have the status of evidence for a possible legal process. You can perform the sample collection yourself.
  2. Purchase a study with legal validity, the results of which will have the status of evidence in a possible legal process or official body, as all participants in the test must identify themselves with a valid identification document (ID, Passport, etc.), and the sample collection will be carried out in a center collaborating with Citogen, which will guarantee the chain of custody of the samples throughout the process.

The reliability level of the results in both cases is exactly the same: up to 99.999999%


Perform the Sample Collection

If we wish to carry out an informative study to resolve doubts about our relationship with another person, the sample collection can be carried out in the comfort of our home in a very simple way, following the instructions in the kit. During the purchase process, we will be asked to indicate the type of sample we want to provide, such as buccal swab or buccal mucosa cells, blood, or others, as well as an address to receive the sample collection kit. This kit will be sent in an anonymous and discreet package, allowing us to directly manage the collection and preservation of samples from the individuals whose DNA we wish to analyze.

On the other hand, if we want the study results to have legal validity in case of a possible judicial process, the sample collection must be carried out in a collaborating laboratory. Before taking the samples, it will be necessary to identify all participating individuals to ensure the validity, origin, and chain of custody of the samples throughout the process. Once the purchase process is completed on our website, we will contact you to provide the address of the laboratory nearest to your postal code and agree on a date when all involved individuals must attend to perform the sample collection. In the case of minors, they must be accompanied by their legal guardian.


Sending the Samples to Our Laboratory

All kits sent to homes include a box and a prepaid envelope in which to enclose the samples for mailing via conventional post.

In the case of studies with legal validity, our collaborating laboratory will forward the samples to our laboratory, complying with the chain of custody criteria.


Creation of the Genetic Profiles from the Samples

Once the samples are received in our laboratory, they will be anonymized using a unique code and the genetic profile will be obtained.

The analysis will determine, with up to 99.999999% reliability, the paternity/maternity relationship between the individuals participating in the study.


Drafting and Sending of the Conclusions Report

Once the analysis is complete, we will issue a results report with the conclusions of the study. In the case of informative tests, the report will be sent in electronic format via email to the address indicated during the purchase process. The format will be this.

The reports of tests with legal validity will also be sent via email to the address indicated in the purchase process. The format will be this.

The estimated time from the receipt of the samples in the laboratory to the sending of the report is 5 working days.

Request Paternity Study

Why trust Citogen for your paternity and maternity studies?

The most reliable answer to many of the questions that keep us awake at night lies in our genes, and at Citogen, we have been specialists in DNA processing, extraction, and analysis since 1998. With over 1000 paternity tests conducted annually and numerous cases resolved in court every year, we have a strong track record.

We are pioneers in clinical and forensic genetics in Spain, widely recognized internationally, and we have the most advanced and modern technologies and facilities in the market, so that anyone can benefit from all the advances achieved in these years in the fields of genetics, genomics, and transcriptomics, at very affordable costs.

Our laboratory complies with the agreement of the National Commission for Forensic DNA Use (CNUFADN), under the Ministry of Justice. Additionally, we are accredited UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025 and members of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG).

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Frequently Asked Questions